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    淺談《錦瑟》


      《錦瑟》是李商隱的壓卷之作,也是朦朧詩的代表作品。其語言清麗,含義復雜,有一曲錦瑟解人難之說。歷朝歷代的評論家提出過無數理論,有悼亡、愛國、自比文采、侍女錦瑟、自傷身世、描寫樂器、詩集總序、政治、純美等說法。個人認為,本詩是李商隱晚年自傷自憐、感慨人生之作,下面具體分析。本文分三部分,首先對各個理論作出評價,其次闡述個人觀點,最后分析《錦瑟》難解的原因。

      先是樂器論。詩作題目雖為《錦瑟》,卻并非詠物詩,實乃以錦瑟發端的無題詩。用錦瑟為題,是選取該詩前兩個字來命名,詩作內容與詠物詩大相徑庭。李商隱的詠物詩多選取逆境中的小物如黃鶯、野菊、寒蟬等等,以歌詠嘆息他們被摧折的命運、不屈的精神為主,格調哀婉蒼涼,充滿了自傷之情。其中佼佼者如《蟬》等,字字不離所詠之物,以物映人,物人合一。本以高難飽,徒勞恨費聲既寫蟬,也寫自己的處境。反觀《錦瑟》,其語言華麗、意境朦朧的特點均與詠物詩有較大差別。此外,莊生曉夢迷蝴蝶,望帝春心托杜鵑滄海月明珠有淚,藍田日暖玉生煙既無詠瑟之意,也無借錦瑟自憐自傷之情,故不為詠物詩。

      然后是政治論,該說認為《錦瑟》是李商隱關于政治的隱喻,作者借這首詩委婉地向令狐绹表達不滿。這種說法雖然有一定道理,但也不準確。從李商隱現有的詩作來看,他很少在政治上隱晦地表達自己的觀點。他的政治詩大多主題清晰,感情濃烈,語言較為直白。他在《寄令狐郎中》里寫道休問梁園舊賓客,茂陵秋雨病相如,把自己比作相如,直接表達了渴望令狐绹援助之意。與《錦瑟》約同一時期的《幽居冬暮》在表達方式上也相當直白。急景忽云暮,頹年浸已衰。如何匡國分,不與夙心期。語言淺白如話,與《錦瑟》大不相同。由此推斷,《錦瑟》不屬于政治詩。

      歷代關于《錦瑟》的說法很多,人們各執己見,爭論不休。有的說法是基于文本的嚴謹的推測,有的純粹是臆想。若要得出正確的結論,還要從文本出發。下面我們就從詩本身出發,闡述《錦瑟》為何是李商隱晚年感慨人生之作。

      詩以錦瑟起筆,由錦瑟回想往事。首聯錦瑟無端五十弦,一弦一柱思華年說法不一。瑟最早為五十弦,唐朝為二十五弦,所以首句有斷弦之意。古代斷弦既表示悲傷的心情,如玉露不成圓,寶箏悲斷弦頭白自吟悲賦客,斷腸愁是斷弦琴;也有喪妻之意,如我有個兄弟新來斷弦自聞抱琴瑟斷弦之悲,日欲修慰。這里既可以取悲傷之意,也可以取喪妻之意。李商隱一生凄苦,故晚年詩作多陰郁。此外,瑟聲本就悲怨,許多詩人都寫出了這一點,如瑤瑟多哀怨,朱弦且莫聽調苦荊人怨,時遙帝子靈。苦寒調對傷心人,句中的悲傷也就不難理解了。雖說如此,取喪妻之意也未嘗不可。李商隱與妻子王氏伉儷情深,他的悼亡詩凄厲悲苦,感人至深秋霖腹疾俱難遣,萬里西風夜正長散關三尺雪,回夢舊鴛機均體現了喪妻對李商隱的沉重打擊,但還不是最有力的證據。最有力的證據來自李商隱《房中曲》中的歸來已不見,錦瑟長于人,從中我們可得知王氏生前時常彈奏錦瑟,而錦瑟也會讓李商隱聯想到亡妻,如此悼亡一說也未嘗不可。個人之所以贊成感慨人生一說,是因為該理論涵蓋悼亡在內。思華年明確點出回憶往事,而往事既包含仕途波折,也包含妻子。按常理,作者回憶往事不可能只回憶一面,黨爭與妻子是對他影響最大的,所以必然二者都有。

      首聯點出情感后,作者在頷聯以莊周、杜鵑自比,寫出一生的經歷和對此的感受。莊生曉夢迷蝴蝶,化用莊周的典故,出自《莊子.齊物論》,昔者莊周夢為蝴蝶,栩栩然蝴蝶也不知周之夢為蝴蝶與,蝴蝶之夢為周與?” “曉夢指拂曉時的夢,多用來形容人生短暫。這里莊周指作者本人,該句主要感慨人生短暫,如黃粱一夢,夢醒成空。下句望帝春心托杜鵑運用杜宇的典故,寫一生的悲恨、絕望的追求。杜宇是傳說中古蜀國的皇帝,國破家亡,死后魂魄化為杜鵑,于春天徹夜啼鳴,直至啼血。古詩詞中,杜鵑作為意象常用來表示悲憤、凄厲與絕望,如辛棄疾啼鳥還知如許恨,料不啼清淚長啼血,白居易其間旦夕聞何物,杜鵑啼血猿哀鳴。前面提到過,瑟主悲音。作者命途多舛,恨意積于心中,被瑟聲引發,便如杜鵑啼血一般凄厲。

      頸聯滄海月明珠有淚,藍田日暖玉生煙用典故勾勒出空曠迷離的景象。滄海月明珠有淚有兩種解釋,一是鮫人典故,二是滄海遺珠,個人傾向于第一種。李商隱的詩中,典故一般成對出現,如賈氏簾窺韓掾少,宓妃留枕魏王才石家蠟燭何曾剪,荀令香爐可待熏。該句下聯無疑是典故,若是上聯取滄海遺珠之說,則不合規律。傳說南海有鮫人,月圓之夜眼淚便化為珍珠,這里取典故凄美之意。作者把自己比喻成鮫人,以眼淚化珠委婉地寫出人生的痛苦,為詩作增添了夢的朦朧美。李商隱善于用華美的語言抒寫內心的傷痛,《錦瑟》不是個例,諸多無題均是如此,譬如遠路應悲春晼晚,殘宵猶得夢依稀,夢為遠別啼難喚,書被催成墨未濃。綜合以上,該句是對內心痛苦的委婉描繪。下句藍田日暖玉生煙用藍田玉的典故寫可望而不可得的美好。中唐詩人戴叔倫有云詩家之景,如藍田日暖,良玉生煙,可望而不可置于眉睫之前也。可看作該句最準確的注解。戴叔倫的時代在李商隱之前,所以其觀點不受《錦瑟》的絲毫影響。白居易的大都好物不堅牢,彩云易散琉璃脆亦可作為此句的注解。

      列舉四個典故后,作者回到現實,點明了自己的態度與心情——“此情可待成追憶,只是當時已惘然追憶二字再次點出該詩的主旨是對往事的回憶,與思華年首尾呼應,起到統領全詩的作用。值得注意的是,此處的不單單指愛情,而是詩人內心所有的情。李商隱是個深情的人,他對國家,對百姓,對妻子,乃至對荷葉、落花均有感情。他寫過荷葉生時春恨生,荷葉枯時秋恨成腸斷未忍掃,眼穿仍欲稀,所以說此情可以看作他對往昔歲月的感情。下句只是當時已惘然直言內心的悔恨悲痛。從字面理解,這句詩的意思是只是我在當時已經陷入迷茫之中背后蘊藏的情感則是對沒有珍惜此情的悔恨。詩的首尾二聯起到說明主題的作用,中間二聯則是對主題的闡述。若把中間二句抽掉,該詩則變為錦瑟無端五十弦,一弦一柱思華年。此情可待成追憶,只是當時已惘然,詩意便清晰了許多,就是由錦瑟引起的對往事的回憶以及往事不可追的悲傷與悔恨。

      以上說法僅為一家之言,并非絕對真理。《錦瑟》朦朧隱晦,絕非幾千字所能說清。自古以來,《錦瑟》便是王冠上的明珠,吸引著無數人去探究。下面就從李商隱的創作特點出發,具體分析該詩難解的原因。

      正如歷代評論家所說,李商隱重在描寫心靈而不是特定事件,這是他的魅力所在,也是他被評為隱晦的主要原因。與其他作家不同,他會把事件抽掉,只展現情感。他家喻戶曉的無題詩如直道相思了無益,未妨惆悵是清狂昨夜星辰昨夜風,畫樓西畔桂堂東都是如此。以《錦瑟》為例,一弦一柱思華年只交代了自己在追憶往事,沒有寫什么往事,也沒寫自己的處境,讀者除了知道他的心理活動外其他一無所知。一直以來,人們習慣聯系具體背景來解詩,作者也會在詩中不自覺地透露出歷史背景。晚唐詩人杜牧在詩中寫道二十四橋明月夜,玉人何處教吹簫,寫出自己的懷念之情,也點明了自己所懷之地揚州,為后世提供了許多線索。同為懷舊之作,李商隱卻只說此情可待成追憶,語言簡單,卻沒有任何線索,自然會給人難解之感。

      除此之外,該詩意象的選擇也是其難解的原因之一。李商隱受李賀影響大,再加上曾有學道經歷,因此詩作多采用神話典故,(萼綠華來無定所,杜蘭香去未移時)《錦瑟》也不例外。該詩四個典故均源自神話傳說,跨度大,與現實關聯小,因此理解難度大。頷聯的兩個典故均有多重含義,更增添了理解難度。神話典故相比歷史典故更隱晦,也無形中阻礙了讀者的理解。舉個例子,賈誼的故事后世通常用來表達懷才不遇的悲傷(賈生年少虛垂涕),清晰明了,少有他用;但藍田日暖玉生煙中藍田玉的典故近乎無解。除典故隱晦之外,典故的排列方式也有特殊之處。四個典故依次排列,但彼此之間沒有清楚的邏輯關系,無疑造成了理解上的阻礙。

      總而言之,《錦瑟》是一首千古奇詩。作者運用華麗的語言抒寫對人生的感慨,意境空靈迷惘。該詩語言含蓄,卻有深沉的感情蘊藏其中,魅力無限相信未來會有更多的人研究它。

      (作者:孫婉懿,北京市二中國際部高二三班)

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